Anglo Saxon History

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Map Position

This map shows the position of locations containing '' centered on Telham in Sussex.

Map Logic

This map shows the area around Battle and Hastings in 1066.

Roman roads are shown as black lines, red lines show old Roman Ridge trackways and purple lines show theoretical Roman roads implied by village and road names.

The thickness of the road implies the width of the Roman metalled surface.

The sea level is shown raised by 5 metres to accomodate the high tide level changes since 1066 see our Sea Level page.

The green shaded area shows what we believe is the area of the impassible Forest of Andredsweald.


 

Phase 18 - Harold is killed

Harold is injured by an arrow and killed by the Norman knights.

 

Phase 18 - Harold is killed
Harold is injured by an arrow and killed by the Norman knights.
This page shows the documentary evidence from translated original documents


Anglo Saxon Chronicles

There was slain King Harold, and Leofwin his brother, and Earl Girth his brother, with many good men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted them for the sins of the nation.

Battle Abbey Chronicles

The miserable English, feeble and on foot, are scattered abroad. Pressed upon, they fall; they are slaughtered, and killed ; and their king being overthrown by a chance blow, they fly in all directions, and seek their hiding places. And then, after an innumerable multitude had been slain on the field, or rather in their flight, a very great calamity presented itself before the eyes of all.

Bayeux_Tapestry

Harold's housecarls are killed and then Harold.
hic franci pugnant et ceciderunt qui erant cum haroldo
  (Here the French are fighting and have killed those who were with Harold)

hic harold rex interfectus est
  (Here King Harold is slain)


Carmen de Triumpho Normannico

When the duke spies the king above on the steep hill
His hard pressed men are being torn to pieces
The duke summons Eustace from the Franks then clearing the battlefield
Like a second Hector, the noble heir of Ponthieu
Hugh accompanies these ever ready for duty
Fourth is Gilfard, called by his father’s surname
Although many others join, these are the best of them
Harold is forced to go the way of all flesh
The first shatters his breast through the shield by a lance
The second by sword severs the head below the helmet
The third by spears pours out the belly’s entrails
The fourth cuts off the leg at the hip
The flying rumour ‘Harold is dead’ spreads through the battlefield
The defeated English refuse battle they demand pardon

Florence of Worcester

When, however, numbers had fallen on both sides, he, alas ! fell at twilight. There fell, also, his brothers, the earls Gurth and Leofric, and almost all the English nobles.

Henry of Huntingdon

Meanwhile, a shower of arrows fell round King Harold, and he himself was pierced in the eye. A crowd of horsemen now burst in, and the king, already wounded, was slain. With him fell Earl Gurth and Earl Leofric, his brothers.

Master Wace

And now the Normans had pressed on so far, that at last they reached the standard. There Harold had remained, defending himself to the utmost ; but he was sorely wounded in his eye by the arrow, and suffered grievous pain from the blow. An armed man came in the throng of the battle, and struck him on the ventaille of his helmet, and beat him to the ground ; and as he sought to recover himself, a knight beat him down again, striking him on the thick of his thigh, down to the bone.

Gurth saw the English falling around, and that there was no remedy. He saw his race hastening to ruin, and despaired of any aid ; he would have fled, but could not, for the throng continually in creased. And the duke pushed on till he reached him, and struck him with great force. Whether he died of that blow I know not, but it was said that he fell under it, and rose no more.

The standard was beaten down, the golden gon fanon was taken, and Harold and the best of his friends were slain ; but there was so much eager ness, and throng of so many around, seeking to kill him, that I know not who it was that slew him.

William of Jumièges/Orderic Vitalis(Gesta)

Although the battle was fought with the greatest fury from nine o'clock in the morning, King Harold was slain in the first onset, and his brother Earl Leofwin fell some time afterwards, with many thousands of the royal army. Towards evening, the English finding that their king and the chief nobles of the realm, with a great part of their army, had fallen, while the Normans still showed a bold front, and made desperate attacks on all who made any resistance, they had recourse to flight as expeditiously as they could. Various were the fortunes which attended their retreat ; some recovering their horses, some on foot, attempted to escape by the highways ; more sought to save themselves by striking across the country.

William of Malmesbury

No reference to this subject in this document.

Quedam Exceptiones de Historia Normannorum et Anglorum

No reference to this subject in this document.



External References in no particular order :-
Original Manuscripts of the Anglo Saxon Chronicles
Online Anglo Saxon dictionary
Online Etymology dictionary
Open Domesday Book - The first free online copy of the Domesday Book
The Ermine Street Guard Roman re-enactment and research Society
The "Kent A" cadastre - page 5 - Peterson 2002
Archaeologia Cantiana Online
Romney Marsh Research Trust
Romney Marsh the Fifth Continent
VillageNet the reference guide to villages in Kent & Sussex
Global warming Flood Maps
The Anglo Saxon Chronicles
Google Maps - the core of the system
GeoPlaner - Useful site for plotting map data
Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars 55BC(Books 4 & 5)
Wikipedia - Caesar's invasions of Britain
Wikipedia - Portus Istus
The Geography of Claudius Ptolemy (Bill Thayers)
Roman Britain.org
Runetree Beowulf
Bayeux Tapestry Online
The Secrets of the Norman Invasion
Chronicles of John of Worcester
Battle Historic Society
Binsted village website(Mearcredesburnan Steðe)
The Spears of Andred
Find British Archaelogical Sites
Wealden Iron Research Group

 

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Author: Simon M - Last Updated: 08/04/2019 14:01
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Data is derived from a number or sources including the Ordnance Survey Gazetter data overlayed onto Google Maps